**EL 201 Switching Circuits & Digital Logic
2 1 1 4 5**

*
Digital electronics course is a classic subject. Digital techniques are useful because it is easier to get an electronic device
to switch into one of a number of known states than to accurately reproduce a continuous range of values. One advantage of digital
circuits when compared to analog circuits is signals represented digitally can be transmitted without degradation due to noise.
In a digital system, a more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more binary digits to represent it.
Computer controlled digital systems can be controlled by software, allowing new functions to be added without changing hardware.
The course deals with the basic and fundamental concept of digital electronics, which will help the students to design digital
circuits. The course includes the topics:*

**AC Machines:** Transformer: Working principle, Ideal Transformer, Equivalent Circuit, Transformer tests, Voltage regulation, Efficiency.
Three Phase Induction Motor: working Principle, Single Phase induction motor, Principle of Operation, Application, Stepper motor.

**DC Machines:** Principle of DC Generator, Methods of excitation, Characteristics and Applications, Principle of DC Motor.

**Simplification of Digital Circuits:** Simplification of switching function - K-map and quine -Variable entered map - McClueskey tabular
minimization methods; computer aided minimization of switching functions, synthesis of combinational logic circuits - NAND and NOR networks.

**Logic families:** Introduction to different logic families; operational characteristics of BJT in saturation and cut-off regions; operational
characteristics of MOSFET as switch; TTL inverter - circuit description and operational; CMOS inverter - circuit description and
operation; other TTL and CMOS kits; electrical behaviour of logic circuits - noise margins, fanout, transmission time, propagation
delay, power dissipation.

**Combinational logic modules:** Decoders, encoders, multiplexers, de-multiplexers and their applications; three state devices and busses;
code converter; binary adders; half adder and full adder, ripple carry adder, carry-loop-ahead adder; subtracters; multipliers; ALU;
comparators; parity circuits; circuit timing - timing diagrams and specifications; combinational circuit design examples.

**Sequential logic devices and circuits:** Latches; flip-flops, SR, JK, D and T flip-flops, Data storage, serial data transfer,
frequency division, registers, shift-registers; counters- ripple counters, synchronous counters, up-down counters, BCD counters,
ring counters, timing diagrams and specifications; state machine models - synchronous state machines ; state machine design examples;
design using ASM charts; timing hazards and races; design and analysis of a synchronous sequential circuits: pulse mode and fundamental mode.

Topic | No. of Lectures |
---|---|

Simplification of digital circuits: Introduction | 1 |

Simplification of switching function: K-map method | 2-3 |

Simplification of switching function: VEM method | 4-5 |

Simplification of switching function: Quine _ Mc Clueskey method | 6-7 |

Computer aided minimization of switching function | 8 |

Synthesis of combinational logic circuits: NAND and NOR network | 9 |

Logic families: Introduction to different logic families | 10 |

Operation characteristic of BJT in saturation and cutoff region | 11 |

Operation characteristic of MOSFET as switch | 12 |

TTL Inverter | 13 |

CMOS inverter | 14 |

Other TTL and CMOS circuit | 15 |

Electrical behaviour of logic Circuits | 16-17 |

Decoders, encoders, multiplexer, de-multiplexer and their applications | 18-17 |

Code converter | 20 |

Binary adders: Half adder and full adder | 21 |

Ripple carry adder, carry look ahead adder | 22 |

Subtracter : Half and full subtracter | 23 |

Multiplier | 24 |

Comparator : magnitude comparator | 25 |

Parity circuits: parity generator & Checker | 26 |

Combinational circuit design example | 27 |

ALU, circuit timing diagrams | 28-29 |

Latches & Flip-flops: SR, JK, D and T F/F | 30-31 |

Data storage, serial data transfer | 32 |

Shift register | 33 |

Ripple counters | 34 |

Synchronous counter | 35 |

Up-down counter | 36 |

BCD counter & Ring counter | 37 |

Synchronous state m/c & state m/c design example | 38-39 |

Design and analysis of synchronous sequential circuits | 40 |

*Experiments using SSI and MSI digital integrated circuits: logic gates, Staircase switch, majority detector, quality detector,
flip-flops, non-overlapping pulse generator, ripple counter, synchronous counter, pulse generator, multiplexers, demultiplexers,
shift registers, seven - segment decoders, monostable multivibrators, latches, memories; some examples of the experiments: arbitrary
wave form generator, stop watch, logic probe, time clock.*

Teaching-learning methods to be used :

Class Room Lectures

Presentations /Seminars

Lab

After completing the course EL 201, student is expected to have the basic knowledge of the Digital Circuits and which will help them to take advance courses on digital system design in higher semester.

- J. F. Wakerly, "Digital Design - Principles and Practices", Pearson Education, 2001, 3/e.
- V. P. Nelson, H. T. Nagle, B. D. Carroll & J. D. Irwin, "Digital Logic Circuit Analysis and Design", PHI, 1995.
- R. F. Tinder, "Engineering Digital Design", Harcourt India, 2001 2/e.

- F. J. Hill and GR Peterson, "Computer Aided Logical Design," John Willey, 1993, 4/e
- M. D. Ercegovac, T Lang and JH Moreno, "Introduction to Digital Systems", John Wiley, 2000
- M. Mano, Digital Design, PHI, 1997.2/e
- Z. Kohavi, Switching and Finite Automata Theory, TMH, 2000
- P. K. Lala, Practical Digital Logic Design and Testing, PHI, 1996
- D. D. Gajski, Principles of Digital Design, PHI, 1996

**EL 203 Analog Electronics Device & Circuit
2 1 1 4 5**

*The objective of this course is to understand the basic physical structure,principles of operation, electrical characteristics and
circuit models of the most important semiconductor devices and to be able to use this knowledge to analyze basic electronic
application circuits. The course includes*

**Semiconductor materials:** Energy bands and carrier concentrations in thermal equilibrium, Carrier transport phenomena.

**Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs):** Principle of operation and characteristics of BJTs
and JFETs, biasing, small signal models, basic single stage amplifier configuration, multi-stage amplifiers, Small signal analysis.

**Frequency response:** Dominant pole approximation, methods of shunt circuit and open circuit time constants, frequency response of basic and compound configurations, effect of negative feedback, basic feedback topologies and their properties, analysis of practical feedback amplifiers, stability, frequency compensation.
Power amplifiers: Push-pull amplifiers, Class A, B, AB, C, D stages.

**Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs):** MOS Capacitor analysis, Modes of operation, MOSFET basic operation, output and transfer characteristics.

**BJT and FET differential amplifiers:** Small signal analysis, frequency response.
Optoelectronic Devices: PIN photodetectors, Solar cells, Light emitting diode.

**Optoelectronic Devices:** PIN photodetectors, Solar cells, Light emitting diode.

**SPICE models:** SPICE models of p-n diode and BJT, MOS geometry in SPICE, Model parameters.

Topic | No. of Lectures |
---|---|

Semiconductor materials: Energy bands and carrier concentrations in thermal equilibrium, Carrier transport phenomena. | 1-4 |

Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) : Principle of operation and characteristics of BJTs and JFETs, biasing, small signal models, basic single stage amplifier configuration, multi stage amplifiers, Small signal analysis. | 5-12 |

Frequency response :Dominant pole approximation, methods of shunt circuit and open circuit time constants, frequency response of basic and compound configurations, effect of negative feedback, basic feedback topologies and their properties, analysis of practical feedback amplifiers, stability, frequency | 13-20 |

Power amplifiers: Push-pull amplifiers, Class A, B, AB, C, D stages. | 21-23 |

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs): MOS Capacitor analysis, Modes of operation, MOSFET basic operation, output and transfer characteristics. | 24-27 |

BJT and FET differential amplifiers: Small signal analysis, frequency response. | 28-30 |

Optoelectronic Devices: PIN photodetectors, Solar cells, Light emitting diode. | 31-33 |

SPICE models: SPICE models of p-n diode and BJT, MOS geometry in SPICE, Model parameters. | 34-37 |

Teaching-learning methods to be used: Concepts on related topics are developed through classroom lectures and interactive discussions. Students are encouraged to develop their own circuit and design concepts and implement the developed concept in the form of laboratory experiments for validation.

Experiments using bipolar junction transistor (BJT) and Field effect transistor: Multistage amplifier's frequency response, JFET's characteristics, MOSFET's characteristics, differential amplifier's frequency response, simulation using SPICE.

The students get to acquire the requisite knowledge on analog elements , devices and circuits and explore their skills in the issues related to analog electronic circuits development.

- A.S. Sedra and K.C. Smith, "Microelectronic Circuits", OxfordUniversity Press, 1997.
- Ben G. Streadman, "SolidState Electronic Devices", PHI, 5th Edition, 2001
- J. Singh, "Semiconductor Devices- Basic Principles", 5th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2001
- M.N Horenstein, "Microelectronic Circuits and Device", Prentice Hall of India, 1996.
- A.P. Malvino, "Electronic Principles" Tata McGraw Hill, 1993
- P. Horowitz and W. Hill, "The Art of Electronics" CambridgeUniversity Press, 1995.
- G.W. Roberts and A.S. Sedra, "SPICE", OxfordUniversity Press, 1997.
- S.M. Sze, "Semiconductor Devices : Physics and Technology" , John Wiley & Sons, 2nd Edition, 2001

**EL 204 Signals and Systems
2 1 1 4 5**

EL204 is an introductory course into the field of Signals and Systems for B.Tech ECE & CSE students. It covers the basic concepts of signals, their classifications and properties. This subject will help them to work on different applications of signal processing. It mainly covers the topics like continuous and discrete time Fourier series, continuous and discrete time Fourier transform, Laplace transforms, Z transforms and its applications.The topics included in this course are:

**Introduction:** Signals and Systems, Examples of signals and systems. Signal types: energy and power signals, continuous and discrete
time signals, analog and digital signals, deterministic and random signals. Signal properties: symmetry, periodicity, and absolute
integrability. Elementary signals: unit step, unit impulse, the sinusoid, the complex exponential; representation of signals as vectors.

**Systems and system properties:** linearity, shift-invariance, causality, stability, realizability; continuous time and discrete time
linear shift-invariant (LSI) systems : the impulse response and step response; response to arbitrary inputs : convolution,
interconnections; characterization of causality and stability of linear shift-invariant systems; system representation through
differential equations and difference equations; eigen functions of LSI systems, frequency response and its relation to the
impulse response.

**Signal representation:** signal space and orthogonal bases of signal, Fourier series representation; Fourier Transform and properties,
Parseval's Theorem, time-bandwidth product; Phase and group delays; Hilbert transform, pre-envelope.

**Discrete-time Fourier Transform (DTFT):** DTFT and properties, Parseval's Theorem; Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and properties.

**Laplace Transform for continuous time signals and systems:** Region of convergence, properties; sdomain analysis of LSI systems, poles
and zeros of system functions and signals, stability, Minimum phase systems.

**Z-Transformation of discrete time signals and systems:** region of convergence, properties, generalization of Parseval's theorem; Z-domain
analysis of linear discrete-time systems, system functions, poles and zeros of systems and sequences, stability, minimum phase systems.

**Sampling theorem and its implications:** spectra of sampled signals; reconstruction: Ideal interpolator, zero-order hold, first-order hold;
aliasing and its effects.

Topic | No. of Lectures |
---|---|

Introduction to Signals and Systems: Energy and power signals, Continuous and discrete time signals, Analog and digital signals, Deterministic and random signals, Even and Odd signals. Signal properties, basic operation on signals | 1-3 |

Elementary signals: unit step, unit impulse, the sinusoid, the complex exponential etc. | 4 |

Systems and system properties: linearity, shift-invariance, causality, stability, continuous time and discrete time linear shift-invariant (LSI) systems | 5-6 |

Step and impulse response of LTI system | 7 |

Continuous time convolution and Discrete time convolution | 8-10 |

Properties of LTI systems, characterization of causality and stability of linear shift-invariant systems, | 11-12 |

LTI systems described by differential and difference equations | 13-14 |

Continuous time Fourier series (CTFS): Introduction,Linear combination of harmonically related complex exponentials, Convergence of the Fourier series, properties of CTFS | 15-17 |

Discrete time Fourier series (DTFS) : Introduction, Fourier series representation of Discrete time periodic signals , properties of DTFS | 18-20 |

Continuous time fourier transform (CTFT): Introduction,Representation of aperiodic signals, convergence issues of Continuous time fourier transforms, Properties of CTFT, Parseval's Theorem | 21-23 |

Discrete time fourier transform (DTFT): Representation of aperiodic signals, convergence issues of Disrete time fourier transforms, Properties of DTFT | 24-26 |

Laplace transforms: Introduction, Laplace transform,Laplace transform of some common signals,The region of convergence for Laplace transforms | 27-29 |

Inverse Laplace transform | 30 |

Properties of Laplace transform | 31 |

S-domain analysis of LSI systems, poles and zeros of system functions, stability | 32-33 |

Z transforms: Introduction, Z-transform, Z-transform of some common sequences, The region of convergence for Z transforms | 34-36 |

Inverse Z transforms | 37 |

Z-domain analysis of linear discrete-time systems, system functions, poles and zeros of systems and sequences | 38 |

Introduction to sampling, spectra of sampled signals and its reconstruction | 39 |

Teaching learning methods to be used

Lecturer and discussion

Quiz

Students passing this course will be proficient with the knowledge of different signals its classifications and properties. They will also have a good knowledge of continuous and discrete time Fourier series, continuous and discrete time Fourier transform, Laplace transforms and Z transforms which are very important for learning important subjects like communication engineering and digital signal processing.

- A.V. Oppenheim, A.S. Willsky and I.T. Young, "Signals and Systems", PHI, 1983
- R.F. Zeimer, W.H. Tranter and D. R. Fannin, "Signals and Systems-Continuous and Discrete", 4th edition
- B. P. Lathi, "Signal Processing and Linear Systems", OxfordUniversity Press, 1998
- Douglas K. Lindner, "Introduction to Signals and Systems", McGraw-Hill International Edition, 1999
- Simon Haykin, Barry van Veen, "Signals and Systems", John Wiley and Sons (Asia) Private Limited, 1998